carnes
               Las dietas cetogénicas prohíben la ingesta de hidratos de carbono provocando que el cuerpo entre en cetosis y obtenga energía a partir de la grasa. El ejemplo más conocido de este tipo es la dieta Atkins. Con estas dietas se puede comer lo que las demás prohíben (carnes y alimentos ricos en grasas) pudiendo prescindir de todo aquello que hace a las dietas aburridas (verduras, ensaladas…) y poco sabrosas, ya que la grasa es el vehículo de los sabores. Cuando una dieta te prohíba consumir frutas, verduras, legumbres… será muy probablemente una dieta cetogénica.

               La pérdida de peso causada por estas dietas se debe principalmente a una gran pérdida de agua y a una disminución de las reservas de glucógeno. En el ayuno, cuando la dieta se basa en grasa y proteínas existe una pérdida del glucógeno hepático y muscular, que está hidratado (unido a agua). Esta disminución puede originar un estado de fatiga e incluso una deshidratación relativa. Otra causa de la posible pérdida de peso que generan es que, al cabo de unos días, conducen al aburrimiento de sus consumidores, que autolimitan la ingesta de alimentos.

               Estudios realizados sobre personas sometidas a diferentes tipos de dietas ricas en grasa o dietas mixtas, demostraron que la pérdida de grasa corporal era muy similar que una dieta mixta del mismo valor calórico, pero producía una mayor pérdida de agua corporal.

               Uno de los principales inconvenientes de las dietas cetogénicas es la sobrecarga funcional del hígado para producir glucosa que el organismo requiere al no ingerir hidratos de carbono con la dieta. Este proceso va a dar lugar a la excreción de residuos metabólicos provenientes de la combustión de grasa o desdoblamiento de proteínas (alteraciones metabólicas: acidosis metabólica). Otra consecuencia de estas dietas es producir cetosis (aumento de concentración de cuerpos cetónicos en sangre y su eliminación por la orina y de acetona por el aire expirado), de ahí el nombre de dietas cetogénicas.

higado-5

               Debido al contenido excesivo en grasa de la dieta, es muy frecuente que se produzca un aumento del colesterol sanguíneo, un aumento de ácido úrico y una sobrecarga renal de solutos, y una disminución en los niveles de potasio, lo que puede provocar arritmias cardíacas. También pueden originar déficits en varios nutrientes así como falta de fibra y obstrucciones intestinales. Estas dietas son especialmente peligrosas durante el embarazo porque para el buen desarrollo del feto es muy importante un metabolismo de hidratos de carbono adecuado.

               Se puede concluir que las dietas cetogénicas no tienen ninguna base científica sólida y sí muchos datos en contra de su utilización pues, además, no fomentan unos hábitos alimentarios correctos y, lo que es peor, se ha demostrado reiteradamente su fracaso en mantener la pérdida de peso lograda cuando se vuelve a la alimentación habitual, dando lugar a un efecto rebote, a veces muy importante.

               Bibliografía

              Varela G, Núñez C, Moreiras O, Grande F. «Dietas y productos mágicos», Libro elaborado a partir del texto: «Dietas mágicas». Documentos Técnicos de Salud Pública. Ed Dirección General de Salud Pública. Consejería de Sanidad y Servicios Sociales. Comunidad de Madrid. 1998

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